Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora) is known for its robust and hearty characteristics, including higher caffeine content, resistance to pests and diseases, and adaptability to lower altitudes and warmer climates. Several coffee varieties have been developed from the Robusta coffee species to further enhance specific traits or flavor profiles.
Here are a few notable Robusta coffee varieties:
CXR (Caturra X Robusta): As mentioned earlier, the CXR hybrid is a cross between Caturra (Arabica) and Robusta coffee plants. This hybrid can inherit some of the desirable characteristics of both parent species, such as disease resistance from Robusta and a more compact size from Caturra.
Liberica (Coffea liberica): Liberica is a separate coffee species, distinct from Arabica and Robusta. However, it is often grouped with Robusta coffee due to its bold and robust flavor profile. Liberica beans tend to have a strong, earthy, and woody taste. It is commonly grown in West and Central Africa.
Excelsa (Coffea excelsa or Coffea liberica var. dewevrei): Excelsa, also known as Coffea excelsa or Dewevrei, is a variety of Liberica coffee. It is known for its unique and tart flavor profile, often described as fruity and wine-like. Excelsa is commonly used in blends to add complexity to the flavor.
Java (Coffea canephora var. robusta): Java Robusta coffee is grown primarily in Indonesia. It tends to have a strong, full-bodied flavor with a relatively low acidity level. It’s often used in espresso blends and instant coffee.
UG 5 (Uganda Robusta 5): UG 5 is a specific Robusta coffee variety cultivated in Uganda. It’s known for its resistance to diseases and pests, making it a popular choice for coffee farmers in the region.
S 274 (Selection 274): S 274 is another Robusta variety commonly grown in India. It is known for its high yields and disease resistance. The flavor profile may include earthy and woody notes.
These are just a few examples of Robusta coffee varieties, and there may be other localized or hybrid varieties in different regions. The flavor profiles of Robusta coffees tend to be bolder and more robust compared to Arabica coffees, making them popular for espresso blends and instant coffee production. However, the specific flavor and characteristics can vary depending on factors like growing conditions, processing methods, and roast levels.